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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Yttrium Symbol: Y
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 88.9059
Density @ 293 K: 4.47 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 19.8 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1794


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1796.2 K boiling point: 3537 K
Heat of fusion: 11.40 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 363.0 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 615.6 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.22 2nd ionization energy: 1181 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 29.6 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 1979.9 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.30 J/gK heat atomization: 423 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,9,2 electron configuration: [Kr] 4d1 5s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: silvery
uses: YAG laser, TV phosphor toxicity:
hardness: mohs characteristics: forms protective oxide


reaction with air: vigorous, =>Y2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, YCl3 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, YCl3
reaction with 15M HNO3: vigorous, =>Y(NO3)3 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 1 hydride(s): YH2 YH3
oxide(s): Y2O3 chloride(s): YCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 180 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 104 pm


thermal conductivity: 17.2 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 16.9 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 22.7 A^3


source: xenotime (phosphate)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.667 log abundance earth's crust: 1.51 log
cost, pure: 220 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g