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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Vanadium Symbol: V
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 50.9415
Density @ 293 K: 5.8 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 8.78 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1830


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 2163.2 K boiling point: 3623 K
Heat of fusion: 20.90 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 0.452 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 650.3 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.63 2nd ionization energy: 1413.5 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 50.7 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2828 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.49 J/gK heat atomization: 514 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,11,2 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d3 4s2
minimum oxidation number: -1 maximum oxidation number: 5
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 5

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: bcc: body-centered cubic color: bright white
uses: tool steel, V2O5 catalyst toxicity: yes
hardness: mohs characteristics: soft


reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>V2O5, VN
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s): VH VH2
oxide(s): VO V2O3 VO2 V2O5 chloride(s): VCl2 VCl3 VCl4


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 134 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 93 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 78 pm


thermal conductivity: 30.7 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 39.37 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 12.4 A^3


source: U, Pb vanadates (misc)
rel. abund. solar system: 2.467 log abundance earth's crust: 2.1 log
cost, pure: 220 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g