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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Tin Symbol: Sn
Group: Metal, Carbon group Atomic weight: 118.69
Density @ 293 K: 7.30 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 16.3 cm3/mol
Group: Metal, Carbon group discovered: 0


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 505.168 K boiling point: 2896 K
Heat of fusion: 7.029 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 295.80 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 708.6 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.88 2nd ionization energy: 1411.8 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 120 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2943 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.227 J/gK heat atomization: 302 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,18,4 electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p2
minimum oxidation number: -4 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: distorted diamond color: silvery-white
uses: solder, pewter, bronze toxicity:
hardness: 1.65 mohs characteristics: resists corrosion;2 forms


reaction with air: mild, w/ht, =>SnO2
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>SnO2, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: mild, =>H2, [Sn(OH)6] 2-

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 10 hydride(s): SnH4 Sn2H6
oxide(s): SnO SnO2 chloride(s): SnCl2 SnCl4


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 140.5 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm


thermal conductivity: 66.8 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 90.909 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 7.7 A^3


source: Cassiterite (oxide)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.582 log abundance earth's crust: 0.3 log
cost, pure: 8 $/100g cost, bulk: 0.83 $/100g