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Name: Scandium Symbol: Sc
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 44.9559
Density @ 293 K: 3.0 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 15.0 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1879


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1812.2 K boiling point: 3021 K
Heat of fusion: 14.10 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 314.20 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 631 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.36 2nd ionization energy: 1235 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 18.1 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2389 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.6 J/gK heat atomization: 378 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,9,2 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d1 4s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: silvery-white
uses: no significant uses toxicity:
hardness: mohs characteristics: soft


reaction with air: vigorous, =>Sc2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, ScCl3 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, ScCl3
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Sc(NO3)3 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 1 hydride(s): ScH2 ScH3
oxide(s): Sc2O3 chloride(s): ScCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 162 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 88.5 pm


thermal conductivity: 15.8 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 19.2 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 17.8 A^3


source: U extractn by-product
rel. abund. solar system: 1.534 log abundance earth's crust: 1.3 log
cost, pure: 1400 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g