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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Ruthenium Symbol: Ru
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 101.07
Density @ 293 K: 12.2 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 8.3 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1844


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 2583.2 K boiling point: 4323 K
Heat of fusion: 24.0 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 595.0 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 711.1 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.2 2nd ionization energy: 1617.1 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 101 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2746.9 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.238 J/gK heat atomization: 643 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,15,1 electron configuration: [Kr] 4d7 5s1
minimum oxidation number: -2 maximum oxidation number: 8
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: silvery-white
uses: catalysts toxicity:
hardness: 6.5 mohs characteristics: hard


reaction with air: none below 800 deg.C
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: none reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 7 hydride(s): none
oxide(s): RuO2 RuO4 chloride(s): RuCl2 RuCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 134 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 82 pm


thermal conductivity: 117 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 131.579 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 9.6 A^3


source: nickel ores (sulfides)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.270 log abundance earth's crust: -3 log
cost, pure: 1400 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g