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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Palladium Symbol: Pd
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 106.4
Density @ 293 K: 12.02 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 8.9 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1803


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1827.2 K boiling point: 3213 K
Heat of fusion: 17.60 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 357.0 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 804.7 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.2 2nd ionization energy: 1894 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 53.7 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3177.2 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.24 J/gK heat atomization: 378 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,18 electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: fcc: face-centered cubic color: silvery-white
uses: catalysts, dental crowns toxicity:
hardness: 4.8 mohs characteristics: absorbs H2


reaction with air: mild, w/ht, =>PdO
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Pd(NO3)2 reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 6 hydride(s): PdHx x<1 non-stoich
oxide(s): PdO chloride(s): PdCl2


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 137 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 100 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 90 pm


thermal conductivity: 71.8 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 94.8 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 4.8 A^3


source: nickel ores (sulfides)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.143 log abundance earth's crust: -2 log
cost, pure: 15 $/100g cost, bulk: 290 $/100g