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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Lead Symbol: Pb
Group: Metal, Carbon group Atomic weight: 207.2
Density @ 293 K: 11.34 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 18.17 cm3/mol
Group: Metal, Carbon group discovered: 0


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 600.702 K boiling point: 2024 K
Heat of fusion: 4.799 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 177.70 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 715.6 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.1 2nd ionization energy: 1450 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 35.1 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3082 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.13 J/gK heat atomization: 196 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,32,18,4 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
minimum oxidation number: -4 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: fcc: face-centered cubic color: gray
uses: batteries, solder, paints toxicity:
hardness: 1.5 mohs characteristics: soft


reaction with air: mild, w/ht, =>PbO
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>NOx, Pb(NO3)2 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 4 hydride(s): PbH4
oxide(s): PbO Pb3O4 Pb2O3 PbO2 chloride(s): PbCl2 PbCl4


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 146 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 133 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm


thermal conductivity: 35.3 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 48.431 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 6.8 A^3


source: Galena (sulfide)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.498 log abundance earth's crust: 1.1 log
cost, pure: 1.5 $/100g cost, bulk: 0.077 $/100g