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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Gold Symbol: Au
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 196.9665
Density @ 293 K: 19.32 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 10.2 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 0


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1337.63 K boiling point: 3081 K
Heat of fusion: 12.550 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 334.40 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 890.1 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.54 2nd ionization energy: 1980 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 222.752 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.128 J/gK heat atomization: 366 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,32,18,1 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
minimum oxidation number: -1 maximum oxidation number: 5
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: fcc: face-centered cubic color: golden yellow
uses: jewelry, electronics toxicity:
hardness: 2.75 mohs characteristics: Inert, ductile malleable


reaction with air: none
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: none reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 1 hydride(s): none
oxide(s): Au2O3 chloride(s): AuCl AuCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 144 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): 151 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 99 pm


thermal conductivity: 318 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 446.4 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 6.1 A^3


source: Gold, gold bearing rock (misc)
rel. abund. solar system: -0.728 log abundance earth's crust: -2.4 log
cost, pure: 4400 $/100g cost, bulk: 1200 $/100g