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Name: Germanium Symbol: Ge
Group: Metal, Carbon group Atomic weight: 72.59
Density @ 293 K: 5.323 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 13.6 cm3/mol
Group: Metal, Carbon group discovered: 1886


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1210.6 K boiling point: 3123 K
Heat of fusion: 36.940 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 330.90 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 762.1 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.01 2nd ionization energy: 1537.4 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 120 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3301.7 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.32 J/gK heat atomization: 377 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,4 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
minimum oxidation number: -4 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: -4 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: diamond color: gray-black
uses: transistor, wide-ang lens toxicity:
hardness: mohs characteristics: semimetal, brittle


reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>GeO2
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Ge(IV), NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 5 hydride(s): GeH4 Ge2H6 + more
oxide(s): GeO GeO2 chloride(s): GeCl2 GeCl4


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 122.3 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 87 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm


thermal conductivity: 60.2 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 6.1 A^3


source: Zn smelting by-product
rel. abund. solar system: 2.076 log abundance earth's crust: 0.7 log
cost, pure: 360 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g