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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Gadolinium Symbol: Gd
Group: Rare Earth, Lanthanides Atomic weight: 157.25
Density @ 293 K: 7.895 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 19.9 cm3/mol
Group: Rare Earth, Lanthanides discovered: 1880


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1584.2 K boiling point: 3273 K
Heat of fusion: 10.050 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 359.40 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 592.6 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.17 2nd ionization energy: 1167 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 50 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 1991 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.23 J/gK heat atomization: 398 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,25,9,2 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: silvery-white
uses: alloys, CD disk toxicity:
hardness: mohs characteristics:


reaction with air: vigorous, =>Gd2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, GdCl3 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, GdCl3
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Gd(NO3)3 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 7 hydride(s): GdH2 GdH3
oxide(s): Gd2O3 chloride(s): GdCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 180 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 107.8 pm


thermal conductivity: 10.5 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 7.9 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 23.5 A^3


source: Monazite(phosphate),bastnaesite
rel. abund. solar system: -0.481 log abundance earth's crust: 0.7 log
cost, pure: 191 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g