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Name: Europium Symbol: Eu
Group: Rare Earth Atomic weight: 151.96
Density @ 293 K: 5.259 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 28.9 cm3/mol
Group: Rare Earth discovered: 1901


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1095.2 K boiling point: 1712 K
Heat of fusion: 9.210 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 143.50 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 546.7 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.12 2nd ionization energy: 1085 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 50 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2405 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.18 J/gK heat atomization: 178 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,25,8,2 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f7 6s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: bcc: body-centered cubic color: silvery-white
uses: alloys, color TV phosphor toxicity:
hardness: mohs characteristics: hard


reaction with air: vigorous, =>Eu2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, EuCl3 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, EuCl3
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Eu(NO3)3 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s): EuH2
oxide(s): Eu2O3 chloride(s): EuCl2 EuCl3


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 208 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 131 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 108.7 pm


thermal conductivity: 13.9 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 11 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 27.7 A^3


source: Monazite(phosphate),bastnaesite
rel. abund. solar system: -1.012 log abundance earth's crust: 0.1 log
cost, pure: 3600 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g