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 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance


Name: Chlorine Symbol: Cl
Group: Halogen Atomic weight: 35.453
Density @ 293 K: 0.003214 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 22.7 cm3/mol
Group: Halogen discovered: 1774


state (s, l, g): g
melting point: 172.22 K boiling point: 239.2 K
Heat of fusion: 3.203 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 10.20 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 1251.1 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 3.16 2nd ionization energy: 2297.3 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 349 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3821.8 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.48 J/gK heat atomization: 121 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,7 electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p5
minimum oxidation number: -1 maximum oxidation number: 7
min. common oxidation no.: -1 max. common oxidation no.: 7

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: layers of Cl2 color: greenish-yellow
uses: bleach (NaOCl), PVC pipe toxicity: yes
hardness: mohs characteristics: diatomic(Cl2), corrosive


reaction with air: none
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>HOCl, Cl- reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>HOCl, Cl-
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>HClOx, NOxCl, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: mild, =>OCl-, Cl-

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s): HCl
oxide(s): Cl2O ClO2 Cl2O7 chloride(s): Cl2


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): 167 pm
atomic radius: 100 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm


thermal conductivity: 0.01 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 2.2 A^3


source: Halite, brine (misc)
rel. abund. solar system: 3.719 log abundance earth's crust: 2.1 log
cost, pure: 0.15 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g