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Name: Bismuth Symbol: Bi
Group: Metal, Nitrogen group Atomic weight: 208.9804
Density @ 293 K: 9.8 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 21.3 cm3/mol
Group: Metal, Nitrogen group discovered: 1600


state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 544.5 K boiling point: 1837 K
Heat of fusion: 11.30 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 104.80 kJ/mol


1st ionization energy: 703.3 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.02 2nd ionization energy: 1610 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 91.3 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2466 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.12 J/gK heat atomization: 207 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,32,18,5 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
minimum oxidation number: -3 maximum oxidation number: 5
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: rhombohedral color: white
uses: antacid, fusible alloy toxicity:
hardness: 2.5 mohs characteristics: brittle


reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>Bi2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Bi(NO3)3, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 1 hydride(s): BiH3
oxide(s): Bi2O3 chloride(s): BiCl3 BiCl4


ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 150 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 117 pm


thermal conductivity: 7.92 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 9.363 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 7.4 A^3


source: Pb smelting by-product
rel. abund. solar system: -0.842 log abundance earth's crust: -0.8 log
cost, pure: 11 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g