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Thallium

81
Tl
204.37
Thallium
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Thallium Symbol: Tl
Group: Metal Atomic weight: 204.37
Density @ 293 K: 11.85 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 17.2 cm3/mol
Group: Metal discovered: 1861

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 576.7 K boiling point: 1730 K
Heat of fusion: 4.142 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 164.10 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 589.4 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.83 2nd ionization energy: 1971 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 20 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2878 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.13 J/gK heat atomization: 182 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,32,18,3 electron configuration: [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: bluish-gray
uses: IR detectors, photomult. toxicity:
hardness: 1.2 mohs characteristics: soft

Reactions:

reaction with air: mild, =>Tl2O
reaction with 6M HCl: reaction with 6M HCl:
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>TlNO3 reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s):
oxide(s): Tl2O Tl2O3 chloride(s): TlCl TlCl3

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 170 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): 164 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 102.5 pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 46.1 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 55.556 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 7.6 A^3

Abundance:

source: Zn/Pb smelting by-product
rel. abund. solar system: -0.735 log abundance earth's crust: -0.3 log
cost, pure: 48 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g