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Sulfur

16
S
32.06
Sulfur
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Sulfur Symbol: S
Group: Non-Metal, Chalcogen Atomic weight: 32.06
Density @ 293 K: 2.07 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 15.5 cm3/mol
Group: Non-Metal, Chalcogen discovered: 0

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 386 K boiling point: 717.9 K
Heat of fusion: 1.7175 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: ?

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 999.6 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.58 2nd ionization energy: 2251 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 200.4144 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3360.6 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.71 J/gK heat atomization: 279 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,6 electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p4
minimum oxidation number: -2 maximum oxidation number: 6
min. common oxidation no.: -2 max. common oxidation no.: 6

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: S8 rings color: yellow(pale)
uses: rubber, batteries (H2SO4) toxicity:
hardness: 2 mohs characteristics: (S8)brittle, 19 forms

Reactions:

reaction with air: vigorous, w/ht =>SO2
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>H2SO4, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 4 hydride(s): H2S
oxide(s): SO2 SO3 chloride(s): S2Cl2 SCl2

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): 170 pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 103 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 0.27 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 2.9 A^3

Abundance:

source: Sulfur,pyrite,natural gas
rel. abund. solar system: 5.712 log abundance earth's crust: 2.4 log
cost, pure: 24 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g