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Phosphorus

15
P
30.97376
Phosphorus
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Phosphorus Symbol: P
Group: Non-Metal, Nitrogen group Atomic weight: 30.97376
Density @ 293 K: 1.82 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 17.0 cm3/mol
Group: Non-Metal, Nitrogen group discovered: 1669

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 317.3 K boiling point: 553.7 K
Heat of fusion: 0.657 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 12.129 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 1011.7 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.19 2nd ionization energy: 1903.2 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 72.07 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2911.9 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.77 J/gK heat atomization: 315 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,5 electron configuration: [Ne] 3s2 3p3
minimum oxidation number: -3 maximum oxidation number: 5
min. common oxidation no.: -3 max. common oxidation no.: 5

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: special: P4 tetrahedra color: white-yellow
uses: fertilizer, detergents toxicity: yes
hardness: 0.5 mohs characteristics: (P4) pyrophoric, 15 forms

Reactions:

reaction with air: vigorous,=>P4O10, ignites
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: mild, =>PH3, may ignite

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 1 hydride(s): PH3 P2H4 + more
oxide(s): P4O10 P4O6 chloride(s): PCl3 PCl5 P2Cl4

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 110 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 58 pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 0.24 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 3.6 A^3

Abundance:

source: Apatite (phosphate)
rel. abund. solar system: 4.017 log abundance earth's crust: 3 log
cost, pure: 4 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g