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Nickel

28
Ni
58.71
Nickel
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Nickel Symbol: Ni
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 58.71
Density @ 293 K: 8.90 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 6.59 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1751

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1726.2 K boiling point: 3193 K
Heat of fusion: 17.470 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 370.40 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 736.7 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.91 2nd ionization energy: 1752.9 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 111.5 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3393.4 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.44 J/gK heat atomization: 430 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,16,2 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d8 4s2
minimum oxidation number: -1 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 2

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: fcc: face-centered cubic color: silvery-white
uses: alloys, coins, batteries toxicity: yes
hardness: mohs characteristics: hard, takes a high polish

Reactions:

reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>NiO
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, NiCl2 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, NiCl2
reaction with 15M HNO3: passivated reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 5 hydride(s): NiH
oxide(s): NiO chloride(s): NiCl2

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 124 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 83 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 72 pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 90.9 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 146.199 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 6.8 A^3

Abundance:

source: sulfides, oxide/silicates
rel. abund. solar system: 4.693 log abundance earth's crust: 1.9 log
cost, pure: 7.7 $/100g cost, bulk: 0.76 $/100g