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Gallium

31
Ga
69.723
Gallium
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Gallium Symbol: Ga
Group: Metal Atomic weight: 69.723
Density @ 293 K: 5.907 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 11.8 cm3/mol
Group: Metal discovered: 1875

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 302.98 K boiling point: 2676 K
Heat of fusion: 5.590 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 258.70 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 578.8 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.81 2nd ionization energy: 1978.9 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 30 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 2963 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.37 J/gK heat atomization: 286 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,3 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 3
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 3

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: special: complex color: silvery-blue
uses: photocells, transistors toxicity:
hardness: 1.5 mohs characteristics: melts near r.t.wets glass

Reactions:

reaction with air: mild, =>Ga2O3
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>GaCl3, H2 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>GaCl3, H2
reaction with 15M HNO3: reaction with 6M NaOH: mild, =>[Ga(OH)4]2-, H2

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s): GaH3
oxide(s): Ga2O3 chloride(s): GaCl Ga2Cl6

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 135 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 76 pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 48.3 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 57.471 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 8.1 A^3

Abundance:

source: Bauxite (oxide)
rel. abund. solar system: 1.577 log abundance earth's crust: 1.2 log
cost, pure: 220 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g