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Copper

29
Cu
63.546
Copper
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Copper Symbol: Cu
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 63.546
Density @ 293 K: 8.96 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 7.1 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 0

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1356.6 K boiling point: 2843 K
Heat of fusion: 13.050 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 300.30 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 745.4 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.95 2nd ionization energy: 1957.9 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 118.5 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3553.5 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.38 J/gK heat atomization: 338 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,1 electron configuration: [Ar] 3d10 4s1
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 2

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: fcc: face-centered cubic color: orange-red
uses: wire, bronze, coins toxicity:
hardness: 2.75 mohs characteristics: soft, ductile

Reactions:

reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>CuO, Cu2O
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Cu(NO3)2, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH:

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 2 hydride(s): CuH
oxide(s): Cu2O CuO chloride(s): CuCl CuCl2

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 128 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): 91 pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 87 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): 68 pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 401 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 595.8 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 6.7 A^3

Abundance:

source: Cu pyrite,chalcocite(sulfide)
rel. abund. solar system: 2.718 log abundance earth's crust: 1.7 log
cost, pure: 2.7 $/100g cost, bulk: 0.24 $/100g