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Carbon

6
C
12.011
Carbon
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Carbon Symbol: C
Group: Non-Metal, Carbon group Atomic weight: 12.011
Density @ 293 K: 2.62 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 4.58 cm3/mol
Group: Non-Metal, Carbon group discovered: 0

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 3823.2 K boiling point: K
Heat of fusion: ? Heat of vaporization: 355.80 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 1086.4 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 2.55 2nd ionization energy: 2352.6 kJ/mole
electron affinity: 121.85 kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 4620.4 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.71 J/gK heat atomization: 717 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,4 electron configuration: [He] 2s2 2p2
minimum oxidation number: -4 maximum oxidation number: 4
min. common oxidation no.: -4 max. common oxidation no.: 4

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hexagonal layers color: black
uses: fuel(coal), lubricant toxicity:
hardness: 0.8 mohs characteristics: 6 forms: graphite,diamond,buckminsterfullerene

Reactions:

reaction with air: vigorous, =>CO2
reaction with 6M HCl: none reaction with 6M HCl: none
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild,w/ht=>C6(COOH)6 reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 3 hydride(s): CH4 and many CxHy
oxide(s): CO CO2 chloride(s): CCl4

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 77.2 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 1.59 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 0.727 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 1.8 A^3

Abundance:

source: Coal,Petroleum,Natural gas
rel. abund. solar system: 7.004 log abundance earth's crust: 2.3 log
cost, pure: 2.4 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g