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Calcium

20
Ca
40.08
Calcium
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Calcium Symbol: Ca
Group: Alkali Earth Atomic weight: 40.08
Density @ 293 K: 1.55 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 29.9 cm3/mol
Group: Alkali Earth discovered: 1808

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 1112.2 K boiling point: 1767 K
Heat of fusion: 8.540 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 153.60 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 589.8 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1 2nd ionization energy: 1145.4 kJ/mole
electron affinity: kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 4911.8 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.63 J/gK heat atomization: 178 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,8,2 electron configuration: [Ar] 4s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 2
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 2

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: hcp: hexagonal close pkd color: silvery-white
uses: lime, cement toxicity:
hardness: 1.5 mohs characteristics: burns brightly

Reactions:

reaction with air: vigorous, =>CaO, Ca3N2
reaction with 6M HCl: vigorous, =>H2, CaCl2 reaction with 6M HCl: vigorous, =>H2, CaCl2
reaction with 15M HNO3: vigorous, =>H2, Ca(NO3)2 reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 6 hydride(s): CaH2
oxide(s): CaO chloride(s): CaCl2

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 197 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 114 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 201 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 255.754 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 22.8 A^3

Abundance:

source: Calcite (oxide)
rel. abund. solar system: 4.786 log abundance earth's crust: 4.65 log
cost, pure: 11 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g