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Cadmium

48
Cd
112.41
Cadmium
 General | States | Energies | Oxidation & Electrons | Appearance & Characteristics | Reactions | Other Forms Radius | Conductivity | Abundance

General:

Name: Cadmium Symbol: Cd
Group: Trans. Met. Atomic weight: 112.41
Density @ 293 K: 8.65 g/cm3 Atomic volume: 13.1 cm3/mol
Group: Trans. Met. discovered: 1817

States:

state (s, l, g): s
melting point: 594.1 K boiling point: 1038 K
Heat of fusion: 6.192 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization: 99.570 kJ/mol

Energies:

1st ionization energy: 867.7 kJ/mole
electronegativity: 1.69 2nd ionization energy: 1631.4 kJ/mole
electron affinity: kJ/mole 3rd ionization energy: 3616.2 kJ/mole
Specific heat: 0.23 J/gK heat atomization: 112 kJ/mole atoms

Oxidation & Electrons:

Shells: 2,8,18,18,2 electron configuration: [Kr] 4d10 5s2
minimum oxidation number: 0 maximum oxidation number: 2
min. common oxidation no.: 0 max. common oxidation no.: 2

Appearance & Characteristics:

structure: distorted hcp structure color: bluish-white
uses: battery,yel. pigment(CdS) toxicity:
hardness: 2 mohs characteristics: soft

Reactions:

reaction with air: mild, w/ht =>CdO
reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, Cd(Cl)2 reaction with 6M HCl: mild, =>H2, Cd(Cl)2
reaction with 15M HNO3: mild, =>Cd(NO3)2, NOx reaction with 6M NaOH: none

Other Forms:

number of isotopes: 8 hydride(s):
oxide(s): CdO chloride(s): CdCl2

Radius:

ionic radius (2- ion): pm ionic radius (1- ion): pm
atomic radius: 151 pm ionic radius (1+ ion): pm
ionic radius (2+ ion): 109 pm ionic radius (3+ ion): pm

Conductivity:

thermal conductivity: 96.9 J/m-sec-deg
electrical conductivity: 146.413 1/mohm-cm polarizability: 7.2 A^3

Abundance:

source: Sphalerite (sulfide)
rel. abund. solar system: 0.207 log abundance earth's crust: -0.7 log
cost, pure: 6 $/100g cost, bulk: $/100g